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senate Bill S. 1321

Should Hacking Voting Systems Be a Federal Crime?

Argument in favor

Foreign adversaries such as Russia are actively seeking to hack America’s elections to undermine the democratic process. This can’t be allowed if faith in elections is to be maintained, so it’s important to prosecute those who engage in such crimes under federal law.

Argument opposed

Interfering with voting machines is already a crime under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, and the federal government shouldn’t need additional legislation to give it the right to prosecute election hackers.

bill Progress


  • Not enacted
    The President has not signed this bill
  • The house has not voted
  • The senate has not voted
      senate Committees
      Committee on the Judiciary
    IntroducedMay 6th, 2019

What is Senate Bill S. 1321?

This bill — the Defending the Integrity of Voting Systems Act — would make it a federal crime to hack any voting systems used in a federal election and allow the Dept. of Justice (DOJ) to pursue federal charges against anyone accused of such crimes.

Impact

Federal elections; election hacking; voting machines; election infrastructure; and the DOJ.

Cost of Senate Bill S. 1321

A CBO cost estimate is unavailable.

More Information

In-DepthSen. Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) reintroduced this bill from the 115th Congress to protect American elections from foreign interference:

“As the Special Counsel’s report on Russian interference demonstrates, America’s elections infrastructure is the frontline of foreign governments’ efforts to subvert our democracy. Our legislation to protect voting machines will better equip the Department of Justice to fight back against hackers that intend to interfere with our elections. This bill shows that securing the nation’s elections and cyber infrastructure can be a bipartisan cause, which I look forward to discussing with our colleagues."

Original cosponsor Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) adds:

“Russia and other hostile actors are continuously bombarding the cyber defenses of our critical infrastructure in an attempt to sow chaos and distrust. Protecting the instruments of our democracy from these attacks and safeguarding Americans’ faith in the integrity of elections are bipartisan goals."

Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-SC), also an original cosponsor of this bill, says it’s needed to defend against a number of enemies:

“Russian interference in the 2016 election exposed just a small piece of our adversaries’ cyber capabilities. Seeking to undermine American democracy and our standing on the world stage, hostile nations like Russia, Iran, China, and North Korea work every day to develop new cyber weapons to deploy against the United States. We should be particularly vigilant of our voting systems. This legislation provides the Department of Justice the ability to investigate and prosecute those who seek to manipulate elections systems equipment. Congress should act quickly to pass this bill to help protect us from further attempts to interfere with the 2020 election."

In comments at the Aspen Security Forum in July 2018, FBI Director Christopher Wray said efforts to target specific election infrastructure haven’t been seen even though other “malign influence efforts” are evident:

“We haven’t seen yet an effort to target specific election infrastructure this time [in 2018], but certainly other efforts — which I would call malign influence efforts — are very active and we could be just a moment away from it going to the next level. To me, it’s a threat that we need to take extremely seriously.”

This bill has two bipartisan cosponsors in the 116th Congress, Sens. Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI). The same group of three Senators introduced this bill last Congress and it didn’t see committee action.


Of NoteIn 2018, the Attorney General’s Cyber Digital Task Force Report concluded that foreign influence operations are a persistent threat against U.S. elections. The report noted:

“Cyber operations could seek to undermine the integrity or availability of election-related data. For example, adversaries could employ cyber-enabled or other means to target election-associated infrastructure, such as voter registration databases and voting machines, or to target the power grid or other critical infrastructure in order to impair an election. Operations aimed at removing otherwise eligible voters from the rolls or attempting to manipulate the results of an election (or even simply spreading dis- information suggesting that such manipulation has occurred) could undermine the integrity and legitimacy of our free and fair elections, as well as public confidence in election results. To our knowledge, no foreign government has succeeded in perpetrating ballot fraud, but the risk is real.

The AG’s task force also emphasized the importance of investigating and prosecuting those who violate U.S. laws and seek to disrupt elections:

“[I]nvestigating and prosecuting those who violate our laws, disrupting particular operations, and exposing covert foreign activities can be useful in defending against this threat. It is therefore critical that the Department consistently evaluate existing law and policy governing its actions, as well as its strategic approach to the problem. In the short term, the Department must use all current authorities to counter the foreign influence threat, working closely with the IC, DHS, State and local governments, and where appropriate, the private sector.”

In its report, the AG’s task force also noted that it may not currently be able to prosecute election hacking under the federal law governing computer intrusions. In its report, the task force notes that electronic voting machines may not qualify as “protected computers” under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA, a 1986 law that prohibits unauthorized access to protected computers and networks or access that exceeds authorization, such as an insider breach).

The task force says that the CFAA generally only prohibits hacking networked computers that are connected to the Internet, and says that voting machines generally don’t meet this criteria because they “are typically kept off the internet.” Consequently, the report goes on to argue, “should hacking of a voting machine occur, the government would not, in many conceivable circumstances, be able to use the CFAA to prosecute the hackers."

Given this interpretation of the CFAA, the government requested legislation to amend the CFAA to specifically cover voting machines so there isn’t any ambiguity — which is exactly what this bill does. Sujit Raman, associate deputy attorney general, testified to the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism that “[e]xpanding the definition of a protected computer to include electronic voting machines will strengthen confidence in the integrity of our electoral system and ensure that any attempts to manipulate the results of an election can be prosecuted to the fullest extent under federal law."

However, Mark Rasch, a former federal computer crimes prosecutor now in private practice in Maryland, contends that the CFAA has been interpreted fairly expansively in the past. He argues that the government is concerning itself with a theoretical and academic argument that’s unlikely to have traction in a U.S. court were a defendant to argue that “hacking a voting machine is not hacking under the CFAA because voting and elections are not commerce." He adds that federal jurisdiction for hacking voting machines is already satisfied under the current CFAA simply because voting machines are used for federal elections, and many machines used in the U.S. today were purchased with federal money made available under 2002’s Help America Vote Act. Thus, Rasch argues, “clearly you have sufficient federal nexus that you can make [election hacking] a federal crime [without this bill].”

In the lead up to the 2018 midterm elections, senior U.S. officials warned of Russian interference. In an appearance at the White House press briefing on August 2, 2018, Director of National Intelligence (DNI) Dan Coats, FBI Director Christopher Wray, then-Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen, NSA Director Paul Nakasone and National Security Advisor John Bolton discussed Russia’s ongoing efforts to interfere in the upcoming elections and assured the public that the Trump administration was doing everything it could to address the challenge. DNI Coat said, “we continue to see a pervasive messaging campaign by Russia to try to weaken and divide the United States” and noted that Russia wasn’t the only threat, adding that “We know there are others who have the capability and may be considering influence activities.”

Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s report said, “We understand the FBI believes that this operation enabled [Russian military intelligence] to gain access to the network of at least one Florida county government” during the 2016 election. On May 14, 2019, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis confirmed the report’s findings. In a news conference, Gov. DeSantis said, “Two Florida counties experienced intrusion into the supervisor of election networks. There was no manipulation” or anything that affected the final vote count.


Media:

Summary by Lorelei Yang

(Photo Credit: iStockphoto.com / gorodenkoff)

AKA

Defending the Integrity of Voting Systems Act

Official Title

A bill to amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit interference with voting systems under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

    Senate Bill S.1321 AKA the Defending the Integrity of Voting Systems Act I’m in strong support of and recommend the passage of the Senate Bill S.1321 AKA the Defending the Integrity of Voting Systems Act which would make it a federal crime to hack any voting systems used in a federal election and allow the Dept. of Justice (DOJ) to pursue federal charges against anyone accused of such crimes. Foreign adversaries such as Russia are actively seeking to hack America’s elections to undermine the democratic process. This can’t be allowed if faith in elections is to be maintained, so it’s important to prosecute those who engage in such crimes under federal law. SneakyPete..... 👍🏻👍🏻S.1321👍🏻👍🏻. 5.16.19.....
    Like (12)
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    Don't we already have laws that covers this bill? And then there's the question, if this bill would do any good on foreign interference. 13 Russians were charged in the Mueller case, but it's very unlikely they will ever appear in a U.S. courtroom. So I have to ask, "what good is this bill in reality"? If it's strictly to build trust that our government is taking voting interference seriously, for me this won't cut it as long as trump continues to deny Russian interference! Just go back to paper BALLOTS until lying Russian trump is out and in the mean time whack these foriegn governments that even "thinks" to interfere in our elections, to their knees with sanctions!!!
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    Yes. I can’t believe this is a question.
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    We have to protect our country
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    At least it's something...
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    My opinion: They must be prosecuted using treason laws. TREASON IS death for the cheaters.
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    This bill sounds like window dressing to me, but I guess it is better than nothing. Still, why isn't "turd blossom" in jail for hacking the 2004 election? (Perhaps because USC didn't mandate compliance until 2006?)
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    Hell yes it sd have already been against the law! Also using any stolen materials for campaign purposes
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    It isn't already? No wonder so much of our election system functions so poorly.
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