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On This Date: Bush & Congress Authorized the Use of Force in the Persian Gulf War

What do you think of the Gulf War resolution on its anniversary?

by Countable | 12.4.18

On January 14, 1991 ― one day before the UN deadline for Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein to end his military occupation of Kuwait ― President George H.W. Bush signed the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution into law, thereby permitting U.S. intervention in what became known as the Persian Gulf War.

Why did it come up?

On August 2, 1990, the small, oil-rich nation of Kuwait was invaded and easily overpowered in a matter of days by the Iraqi military, which was the fourth largest in the world at the time, supplied by the Soviet Union, and battle-hardened from a nearly eight-year war against Iran.

Saddam Hussein then announced the annexation of Kuwait, giving him control of roughly 20% of the world’s proven oil reserves at the time, and began verbally attacking neighboring Saudi Arabia (which itself had 26% of the world’s oil reserves).

To deter further aggression by Saddam’s regime, the U.S. launched Operation Desert Shield on August 7th at the request of Saudi King Fahd and deployed military assets to the region, and ultimately the military buildup exceeded more than half a million U.S. troops. During the buildup, the Bush administration formed a coalition of 34 nations, 28 of which contributed troops and equipment to the effort (and others chipped in financially, as Japan and Germany contributed $10 billion and $6.6 billion, respectively).

The UN Security Council passed Resolution 678 on November 29, 1990, which gave Iraq until January 15, 1991, to withdraw from Kuwait and authorized “all necessary means” including military force to implement it. A week before the deadline, President Bush asked Congress to approve an authorization for the use of military force:

“The current situation in the Persian Gulf, brought about by Iraq's unprovoked invasion and subsequent brutal occupation of Kuwait, threatens vital U.S. interests. The situation also threatens the peace. It would, however, greatly enhance the chances for peace if Congress were now to go on record supporting the position adopted by the UN Security Council on twelve separate occasions. Such an action would underline that the United States stands with the international community and on the side of law and decency; it also would help dispel any belief that may exist in the minds of Iraq's leaders that the United States lacks the necessary unity to act decisively in response to Iraq's continued aggression against Kuwait.”

What did it do?

The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution allowed the U.S. military to enforce the will of the UN Security Council as expressed through the 12 resolutions it had passed and remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait.

Congress took up the resolution on Saturday, January 12, 1991, with the Senate passing its version of the bill sponsored by Sen. John Warner (R-VA) on a 52-47 vote along mostly party-lines. Only 10 of the upper chamber’s 55 Democratic senators voted in favor, including then-Sens. Al Gore (TN), Joe Lieberman (CT), and Harry Reid (NV) ― while only two Republicans dissented: Sen. Chuck Grassley (IA) and former Sen. Mark Hatfield (OR).

An identical House resolution sponsored by then-House Minority Leader Bob Michel (R-IL) was also passed along mostly party lines, with Republicans supportive by a margin of 164-3, while only 86 of the chamber’s 267 Democrats voted in favor. The Senate then approved the House-passed bill by unanimous consent, before it was signed into law by President George H.W. Bush on January 14, 1991 ― the day before the UN-mandated deadline ― who remarked:

“The debate on H.J. Res. 77 reflects the profound strength of our constitutional democracy. In coming to grips with the issues at stake in the Gulf, both Houses of Congress acted in the finest traditions of our country. This resolution provides unmistakable support for the international community's determination that Iraq's ongoing aggression against, and occupation of, Kuwait shall not stand.”

What has its impact been?

Operation Desert Storm kicked off on January 17, 1991, as the coalition, commanded by U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf, began an intense aerial bombardment of the Iraqi military which lasted for 42 days. Once air superiority was established, the liberation of Kuwait began on February 24 and was completed three days later with the expulsion of the Iraqi military, who set fire to nearly 700 oil wells during their retreat (which weren’t fully extinguished until November).

The same day the ground campaign began in Kuwait, coalition forces invaded Iraq from positions in the Saudi desert, a “left hook” that caught Saddam’s military off-guard and out-flanked as they’d anticipated an amphibious invasion from the Persian Gulf. American, British, and French forces overwhelmed the Iraqis and pushed to within 150 miles of Baghdad before a ceasefire was declared on February 28, and the coalition withdrew back into Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

During the war, the coalition suffered 292 killed (147 from hostile action) and nearly 800 wounded (500 in combat) while Iraqi casualties were estimated at between 25,000 and 50,000 killed, and more than 150,000 wounded or captured.

The roughly 540,000 American troops in the Persian Gulf began their drawdown and withdrawal on March 10, 1991. Their presence in the Middle East would later be used by Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda as justification for their jihad against America and the West, including the September 11th terror attacks that killed nearly 3,000 Americans, leading to the Global War on Terror.

After the Gulf War ended, Saddam maintained his grip on power by quashing an uprising in 1991 by Kurdish and Shiite forces in northern and southern Iraq. In the years that followed, his regime attempted to hide its biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs from UN inspectors. (Iraq had used chemical weapons on numerous occasions against Iranian troops during the Iran-Iraq war and against Kurdish rebels and had pursued nuclear ambitions for decades.)

Those refusals prompted Bush to launch a missile strike on a nuclear complex on his final day in office in 1993. Strikes were also carried by President Bill Clinton in 1998 (who signed into law a bill making Saddam’s removal U.S. policy), and President George W. Bush in 2001 in response to subsequent refusals to allow inspections.

That eventually led to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, which removed Saddam from power but didn't uncover the active weapons of mass destruction programs feared by the coalition. Over the course of the campaign and the more than eight year occupation and insurgency that followed, nearly 4,500 American servicemembers were killed in action.


— Eric Revell

(Photo Credit: US Air Force / Public Domain)

Countable

Written by Countable

Leave a comment
(39)
  • Dara
    Voted Apathetic
    01/14/2019
    ···

    The Gulf War reinstated the sovereign Kuwaiti government. The action was swift and decisive. However, the problem in the Middle East cannot be solved with military actions. Freedom comes with a price. The populations need to want the change.

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  • Poli.Sci
    Voted Happy
    01/14/2019
    ···

    This resolution was very much needed and I approve of this directive by Congress at the time. This was the first conflict in the Middle East outside of the Cold War that was solved with military intervention and I respect all Vets from this campaign. Even though this had an ending that created the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers, this was necessary to prevent Sadam Hussein from attacking his neighbors indiscriminately. If the international community did nothing, many analysts believe Sadam would have become another despot who would commit mass atrocities.

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  • Ray
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    Congress must stand up to any president and conduct themselves according to their constitutional responsibilities. War act must be reviewed and authorized by congress each time US gets engaged in war or continues wars or our soldiers are deployed anywhere at anytime

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  • Marylynn
    01/15/2019
    ···

    It was by far one of the worst days in history and a huge mistake our lawmakers made. 18 years and counting and thousands have died and for what????? Senseless war and it was our senseless lawmakers that put them there.

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  • Christopher
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    We let our fears get the better of us in the wake of 9/11. This should serve as a warning for the current xenophobic Administration, by giving into fear we let our worst demons loose upon our families and friends. Stand up to this real menace by voting for politicians who care more about their constituents than themselves.

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  • BlueSphere
    Voted Apathetic
    01/14/2019
    ···

    Quote: During the buildup, the Bush administration formed a coalition of 34 nations, 28 of which contributed troops and equipment to the effort (and others chipped in financially, as Japan and Germany contributed $10 billion and $6.6 billion, respectively). - Countable Sanctions, deadlines and warnings didn’t stop Saddam Hussein from invading the tiny nation of Kuwait and he had to stopped. There’s a lot that happened AFTER the initial strikes against Iraq that I may not understand or agree with, but I supported and still do, the decisive response of the U.S lead coalition at the time.

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  • Wesley
    01/14/2019
    ···

    I think most people in this comment thread are for getting our involvement far earlier than this campaign. Finding oil for the Saudi‘s in the 1930s, certainly in the 70s, the Iran hostage crisis, the Iran Iraq war, and then, this.

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  • Hunter
    Voted Happy
    01/15/2019
    ···

    An evil nation invaded a country with no real reason, and we stepped in to help. It may not have been our war, but if we ignored it what would’ve happened to the rest of the Middle East? What if Iraq has become to strong fro us to fight them within the coming years and they start to threaten our allies? “You cannot reason with a tiger if your head is in its mouth.”-Winston Churchill Appeasement wouldn’t work, Sadam only understood Force so we gave it to him and liberated Kuwait.

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  • KyleCorley
    Voted Sad
    12/05/2018
    ···

    Another example of the US trying to be the police of the world and the true beginning of the never ending war in Iraq.

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  • Janie
    Voted Sad
    12/05/2018
    ···

    And so the effort to destabilize the Middle East began...

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  • Karl
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    The war was based on faulty and fake information! It should never have been authorized. Sadham was put into his position of power by the US/CIA. He was the only leader who was capable of maintaining balance between the tribal clashes within his country, even though he was cruel. Are we better off today with the havoc the US has left behind because we did nothing to rebuild the country we went to war with on false reports?

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  • JohnC
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    It is sad to reflect how American citizens and the world were mislead into a conflict by individuals with an agenda that was not in the best interest of America, Iraq or the world.

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  • Kat
    Voted Apathetic
    12/05/2018
    ···

    I think we need to keep something in place to keep the peace

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  • Steve
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    It was based on a lie. Looks like republicans have a history of being liars to the people of this country!

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  • Kari
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    We are reckless with our military. Desert Storm ended with a regime who stripped women of their rights and created a religious dictatorship. Wanna know why Americans are scared of Muslims? Because we went into their backyard, blew up their country, and established someone who prioritized loyalty with the US over the well-being of his people. We are ignorant busy-bodies pretending to be good Samaritans.

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  • Chris
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    The US should commit to solar and wind power and get out of the middle east. Let them handle their own problems. And stop sending foreign aid to billionaires.

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  • BoldlyGo
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    The Iraq War was highly gross impeachable Criminal offense by the bush Cheney Administration lying United States into a war in Iraq thousands of GI'S died unnecessarily and thousands more maimed🚔⚖ It was NO weapons of mass destruction this will forever be a black spot on my country and the Republican Party. Bush Cheney Administration should have been indicted convicted and jailed for defrauding the American government🚔⚖

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  • Matt
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    this war was a crime all in itself.our government used our army to fight a corporate war,used media to spread propaganda to justify it. waste of lives,and tax money.all we have accomplished is creating more enemies world wide...and who can blame them?

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  • BoldlyGo
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    Oh just one more thing. My comments regarding the second Iraq War stand! The first Iraq war was completely avoidable, if Bush senior would have just used good old-fashioned gunboat diplomacy and parking at Carrier Group or two off the coast of Iraq when Saddam Hussein was making threats against Kuwait. Gunboat diplomacy would have kept Saddam from evading Kuwait and saved lives. Instead Bush senior use the first Iraq War is a political tool to help him try to win reelection, most unconscionable🚔💩

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  • Stickyfingers
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    We need to stay out of everyone’s business and help our own country.

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  • Curt
    Voted Sad
    01/14/2019
    ···

    False Flag war.

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  • John
    Voted Apathetic
    01/14/2019
    ···

    The beginning of a disaster then his son would lead into a downward spiral that we are living through today.

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